Connectors, types, kinds, purpose
An electric (unpolarized) connector, also called a slot, is an electrical device that connects and disconnects mechanically the electrical circuit in a de-energized condition. The most famous connector is a plug and socket. The connection is made by creating contacts between several conductors. The number of contacts can be from one to several hundred and even thousands, depending on the purpose of the device and the electrical circuit itself.
Structute of connectors
The design of the electrical connector is quite simple: a plug and a socket. They, in turn, have a body and an insulator with contact details.
The body of the connector can be demountable and cast. Cases are mainly plastic, rubber, and ceramic, metal.
The isolator is a part of the socket or plug, located in the housing itself, designed to mechanically fasten the contact parts, as well as to isolate them. Normally, they are made of plastic, ceramics. If the body is cast, then the insulator is not contained in it.
The contact part (boot), contacting another part when connecting the contacts, forms an electrical contact. It is made of metals having excellent electrical conductivity. Most often it is an alloy of aluminum, copper. Soviet parts were often covered with precious metals in order to prevent oxidation. Modern ones have a gold, silver or platinum coating. The boot consists also of the shank of the electrical connector (to which wires, cables are connected) and from the screen clamp.
In order to exclude a fail connection, almost all connectors are made with the orienting elements, or how they are called by professionals, “the keys”. Orienting elements are kinds of guides in the form of grooves, protrusions, showing how to connect the various parts of the connectors, so that the contact portion of one connector coincides with the intended part of the other.
The contact group of any connectors is called “father/mother” (informally).
Parameters of the connectors
The connectors are divided according to several parameters:
- Voltage: can be high-voltage> 50 volts and low-voltage <50 volts.
- Use: can be feeders, audio or video connectors, signal, computer, and others.
- Frequency range: high-frequency and low-frequency.
- Type of installation: wires, chassis, panels.
- The strength of current: low-current and high-current.
- Type of connecting, connector to the connector: soldered, crimped, with a screw terminal.