The catalyst, as a chemical element, participates in the chemical reactions, but is never presented in the final products of the chemical process. It is used to speed up the reaction, forcing all processes to proceed much faster and more efficiently.
Classification by field of application
The purpose and scope of their use are as diverse as the industries in which they are used.
According to the field of application the catalysts can be divided into:
- Reforming – used in chemical reactions to produce aromatic carbohydrates and high-quality gasolines from mineral oil and petrol fractions of petroleum.
- Isomerization – used to obtain isomers from oil, i.e. for the decomposition of oil into high-octane gasoline components and low-octane oil fractions.
- Purification – successfully used to purify exhaust gases and gases emitted into the atmosphere.
- Hydrocracking – used in the chemical industry to produce diesel and jet fuel, gasoline from fuel oil, gas oil, high-boiling petroleum fractions and asphalt-free oil.
- Selective hydrogenation – used to produce acetylene and acetylenic carbohydrates.
- Aromising – used to produce aromatic carbohydrates.
- Oxidation – respectively used in the reactions of oxidation of chemical reagents in the reaction of deep and incomplete (partial) oxidation.
- Petrochemicals – are actively used in the petrochemical industry.
- Catalysts of filters in gas masks – in the same way there are catalysts involved in the filtration of carbon monoxide and harmful impurities.
The maintenance of precious metals
All industrial catalysts, regardless of the scope of their use, contain precious and non-ferrous metals. The catalysts contain aluminum, chromium, platinum, iron, vanadium, nickel, bismuth, cobalt, gold, silver, etc.